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Scholarly Communication


Many terms used in scholarly communication are similar to, or the same as, those used in everyday life. This section defines commonly used terms.

Article Processing Charges (APC)

The fee a publisher charges for making articles Open Access at the time of publication. This is not the same as 'page charges' or 'colour charges'.

Author Accepted Manuscript

The author's final, peer reviewed and corrected manuscript, usually created in Word or LaTeX. When publishers require authors to upload their final manuscript into a formatted page, this document is considered to be the Author Accepted Manuscript (AAM) as it is distinguishable from the final published version because page numbers, volume and issue number are absent.

Gold Open Access

Open access at the time of publication. Gold Open Access can be considered to be 'born Open Access'. Fully Open Access journals sometimes (but not always) charge a fee for publication.

Green Open Access

Making a version of work (usually an AAM) available in an open access repository. These can be institutional such as the Cambridge Repository or subject based, such as arXiv, PubMed Central, RePEc or SSRN. Placing work in ResearchGate or is not considered to be green open access. Green Open Access can be considered to be 'secondary Open Access'.

Hybrid journals

Hybrid journals are subscription journals that charge an extra fee to make a specific article Open Access while the remainder of the journal remains behind a paywall. This type of Gold Open Access is always accompanied by a fee.

Open Access

Open access is making research results freely available to anyone with an internet connection rather then keeping those results hidden behind a subscription paywall. 


An online database of Open Access works. Repositories do not undertake peer review but do hold material that has been peer reviewed elsewhere. In addition repositories can hold 'grey literature' such as Theses, Discussion Papers, Datasets and other material.